Women

Author
Mary Falconer
Judgment date
Court name
African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights
Flynote local
Resolution
Flynote
Human Rights
ACHPR Procedures
Periodic reporting
Periodic reporting deadlines
Women
Displaced persons

La Commission Africaine des Droits de l'Homme et des Peuples, réunie en sa 70e  Session Ordinaire, tenue virtuellement, du 23 février au 09 mars 2022:

Rappelant son mandat de promotion et de protection des droits de l'Homme en Afrique, en vertu de la Charte Africaine des Droits de l'Homme et des Peuples (la Charte Africaine);

Rappelant également l'Article 45(1) (b) de la Charte Africaine qui donne mandat à la Commission de " Formuler et élaborer, en vue de servir de base à l'adoption de textes législatifs par les gouvernements africains, des principes et règles qui permettent de résoudre les problèmes juridiques relatifs à la jouissance des droits de l'Homme et des peuples et des libertés fondamentales";

Considérant l'Article 62 de la Charte africaine qui prévoit que " Chaque Etat partie s'engage à présenter tous les deux ans, à compter de la date d'entrée en vigueur de la présente Charte, un rapport sur les mesures d'ordre législatif ou autre, prises en vue de donner effet aux droits et libertés reconnus et garantis dans la présente Charte" ;

Considérant également l'Article 26 du Protocole à la Charte Africaine des Droits de l'Homme et des Peuples relatif aux Droits de la Femme en Afrique (Protocole de Maputo), qui prévoit que " Les États assurent la mise en œuvre du présent protocole au niveau national et incorporent dans leurs rapports périodiques présentés conformément aux termes de l’Article 62 de la Charte africaine, des indications sur les mesures législatives ou autres qu’ils ont prises pour la pleine réalisation des droits reconnus dans le présent protocole" ;

Considérant l'Article 14 de la Convention de l'Union Africaine sur la Protection et l'Assistance aux Personnes Déplacées en Afrique (Convention de Kampala), qui dispose que " Les États parties, en présentant leur rapport conformément à l’Article 62 de la Charte africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples […] indiquent les mesures législatives et autres qu’ils ont prises pour donner effet à la présente Convention " ;

Ayant à l'esprit la Règle 83(1) du Règlement Intérieur 2020 de la Commission Africaine des Droits de l'Homme et des Peuples, qui prévoit que : " La date de la présentation du prochain Rapport périodique de l’État partie doit être précisée dans les Observations Finales ";

Ayant également à l'esprit sa Recommandation ACHPR/Recom.3 (III) 88 sur les Rapports Périodiques (Recommandation N°3 d'avril 1988) ;

Rappelant sa Résolution ACHPR/Res. 108(XXXXI)07 réitérant l'importance du respect des obligations de présentation de rapports en vertu de la Charte Africaine ;

Rappelant également sa décision adoptée en novembre 1995 dans laquelle il a été recommandé aux Etats Parties de regrouper plusieurs rapports en retard en un seul rapport en vue de faciliter le respect de l'obligation de présenter des rapports ;

Rappelant également les différentes décisions du Conseil Exécutif qui demandent aux Etats Parties de soumettre leurs rapports périodiques conformément à l'Article 62 de la Charte Africaine, à l'Article 26 du Protocole de Maputo et à l'Article 14 de la Convention de Kampala ;

Reconnaissant l'absence de directives pour la détermination des cycles de présentation des rapports périodiques et reconnaissant aussi qu'une certaine confusion peut en résulter, notamment en ce qui concerne le décompte des rapports dus par les Etats.

La Commission :

1. Décide d'adopter ce qui suit :

i. Un cycle de rapport périodique commence automatiquement avec la notification des Observations Finales sur le rapport périodique précédent. Le cycle comprend la soumission du nouveau rapport périodique, son examen et se termine par l'adoption des Observations Finales y afférentes ;

ii. La date d'échéance du prochain rapport périodique sera communiquée aux Etats parties avec les Observations Finales relatives au rapport précédent : La date d’échéance correspondra à la date de notification des Observations Finales plus deux ans (date d'échéance = date de notification + deux ans) ;

iii. Si l'Etat partie ne soumet pas son rapport périodique en temps voulu, la Commission comptera un rapport dû par tranche de deux ans de retard ;

2. Appelle les États parties à redoubler d'efforts pour se conformer à l'obligation de soumettre des rapports périodiques, en bonne et due forme, conformément à l'Article 62 de la Charte africaine, à l'Article 26 du Protocole de Maputo, à l'Article 14 de la Convention de Kampala et aux autres normes pertinentes.

Fait virtuellement le 09 mars 2022

Author
Mary Falconer
Judgment date
Court name
African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights
Flynote local
Resolution
Flynote
Human Rights
ACHPR Procedures
Special Rapporteur
Women
Special mechanism

The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (the Commission), meeting at its 69th Ordinary Session, held virtually from 15 November to 05 December 2021;

Recalling its mandate of promotion and protection of human and peoples’ rights in Africa under Article 45 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter);

Recalling its Resolution ACHPR/Res.38 (XXXVIII) 99, adopted at its 25th Ordinary Session, held from 26 April to 5 May 1999 in Bujumbura, Burundi, on the establishment of a Special Mechanism on the Rights of Women in Africa and appointment of a Special Rapporteur;

Recalling its Resolutions ACHPR/Res.63 (XXXIV) 03; ACHPR/Res.78 (XXXVIII) 05; ACHPR/Res.112(XXXXII) 07; ACHPR/Res.154 (XLVI) 09, ACHPR/Res.205 (L) 11; ACHPR/Res.245 (LIV) 13;ACHPR/Res.380(LXI)2017 and ACHPR/Res.425(LXV)2019 on the renewal of the Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women in Africa;

Recalling also its Resolution ACHPR/Res. 454 (LXVI) 2020 on the Renewal of the Mandate and Appointment of Commissioner Kayitesi Zainabo Sylvie as the Special Rapporteur;

Bearing in mind the resignation of Commissioner Kayitesi Zainabo Sylvie in November 2020 and the interim appointment of Commissioner Maria Teresa Manuela as Special Rapporteur;

Cognizant of the fact that women’s rights need sustained promotion and protection as many women and girls in Africa are still vulnerable and seriously exposed to human rights violations;

Recalling the Commission’s goal to continue to advocate for the ratification and implementation of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa (the Maputo Protocol) by all States Parties to the African Charter;

Reaffirming the importance of the mechanism of the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women in Africa and the need to continue the implementation of its mandate;

Decides to appoint Commissioner Janet Ramatoulie Sallah- Njieas Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women in Africa.

Done virtually, on 5 December 2021

Author
Mary Falconer
Judgment date
Court name
African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights
Flynote local
Resolution
Flynote
Women
Equality before the law and equal protection of the law
Equality and non-discrimination
Property
Marriage
Harmful practices affecting the rights of women

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Commission), meeting at its 24th Extra-Ordinary Session, held in Banjul, Republic of The Gambia, from 30 July to 8 August 2018; 

Recalling  its mandate to “promote human and peoples’ rights and ensure their protection in Africa”;

Bearing in mind  Resolution ACHPR/Res.262 (LIV)  2013 on Women's Right to Land and Productive Resources; and the Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy in Africa adopted by the African Union in 2009, in particular the provisions relating to strengthening women’s right to land;

Concerned  that lack of access to land and other productive resources continue to have a negative impact on the enjoyment of various human rights for women;

Deeply concerned  that some countries maintain regressive standards when it comes to defining ‘equitable share,’ such that women are not able to enjoy equal property rights upon separation, divorce or annulment of a marriage;

Noting  that women’s access to, use of and control over land and other productive resources are essential to ensuring their right to equality and to an adequate standard of living;

Further noting  the need to clarify various legal issues pertaining to women’s property rights and equality in marriage, particularly in cases of separation, divorce or annulment of a marriage; including clarity on the legal obligations of States so as to  establish a continent-wide standard based on human rights principles;

Considering  that regional and international legal and policy instruments have not been sufficient in setting out a clear foundation for women’s rights to land and other productive resources;

Mindful  of the role of the Commission under Article 45 of the African Charter, to ‘formulate and lay down principles and rules aimed at solving legal problems relating to human and peoples’ rights in particular;”

Taking note  of its Resolution ACHPR/Res.327 (LVII) 2015 appointing Hon. Commissioner Lucy Asuagbor as the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women in Africa;

Noting  the work already started by the Commission on the thematic issue;

The Commission Decides to:

1.   Elaborate General Comments on Article 7 (d) of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa, which requires State Parties to enact appropriate legislation to ensure that women and men enjoy the same rights in case of separation, divorce or annulment of marriage, and that women and men shall have the right to an equitable sharing of the joint property deriving from the marriage in such circumstances;

2.   Collaborate with relevant stakeholders working on issues of land and property rights in the drafting of the General Comments; and

3.   Task Hon. Commissioner Lucy Asuagbor to work on the implementation of this Resolution and report to the 64th Ordinary Session of the Commission.

 

Done in Banjul, Republic of The Gambia, 8 August 2018

Author
Mary Falconer
Judgment date
Court name
African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights
Flynote local
Resolution
Flynote
Participate in government
Women

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Commission), meeting at its 24th Extra-Ordinary Session held in Banjul, The Gambia, from 30 July to 8 August 2018;

Recalling  its mandate under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) to promote and protect human and peoples’ rights in Africa;

Considering  Article 13(1) of the African Charter which stipulates that “every citizen shall have the right to participate freely in the government of his country, either directly or through freely chosen representatives in accordance with the provisions of the law”;

Recalling  the obligation contained in the African Charter to take into consideration sub-regional, regional and international human rights instruments;

Mindful  of the 2001 Declaration on the Principles Governing Democratic Elections in Africa which stipulates that “the holding of democratic elections constitutes an important dimension in the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts” and also the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance;

Underscoring  its previous Resolutions on Elections: Resolutions ACHPR/Res.164 (XLVII) 2010; ACHPR/Res.184 (EXT.OS/IX) 2011; ACHPR/Res.232 (EXT.OS/XIII) 2013; ACHPR/Res.239 (EXT.OS/XIV) 2013; ACHPR/Res.272 (LV) 2014; and ACHPR Res. ACHPR/Res.293 (EXT.OS/xvii) 2015, amongst others;

Expressing  concern that, despite the number of Resolutions adopted by the Commission on Elections, the conduct of free and fair elections in some parts of the African continent remains a challenge; 

Specifically noting  the Legislative elections in Guinea-Bissau scheduled for 18 November 2018;

Noting  the draft Stability Pact signed by key political and social stakeholders in Guinea-Bissau which inter alia calls for reform of the electoral law for the organization of legislative and local elections in 2018; 

Further noting  that the Stability Pact will serve as a basis for good governance in Guinea-Bissau following the elections;

Emphasizing  the importance of the organization of peaceful, free, fair, and transparent elections to promote peace and security; 

Reaffirming  its commitment to the development of democracy in Africa, and recognizing that the principles of good governance, transparency, and human rights are critical elements that contribute to the achievement of peace and sustainable development in Africa; 

Noting  the need for certain measures to be taken to prevent pre and post-elections violence and their detrimental effect on democracy;

CALLS  on the Government of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau to: 

· Create conditions conducive for peaceful, free, fair, and transparent elections in the country;

· Expedite adoption of the Stability Pact which is at level of the National Assembly, so as to create the conditions for a peaceful election in the country in November 2018;

· Ensure that the electoral process adheres to international standards and norms; 

· Ensure that all participating parties, in particular, the opposition parties, are allowed to conduct their campaigns freely without any violence and limitations;

· Ensure the involvement of women in the electoral process, and prevent violence against women throughout the electoral cycle;

· Uphold human-rights principles in electoral security. 

Encourages the African Union, ECOWAS, and the international community to accompany and support the electoral process.

Further encourages  the African Union and ECOWAS to deploy Observers in order to support and monitor the electoral process. 

Done in Banjul, The Gambia, on 8 August 2018